Epanutin/phenytoin/dilantin/DPH – an anticonvulsant drug given to epileptics, some degree of gums enlargement occurs in a large percentage of epileptics taking phenytoin, especially in those under 40 years of age.
Cyclosporine – an immunosuppressive drug, it can produce fibrous hyperplasia of the gums. The condition is however less common in patients on cyclosporine, but when it occurs it may be very severe.
Nifedipine – a calcium channel blocking drug given to treat cardiac angina, arrhythmias and hypertension, it produces fibrous hyperplasia of the gums. Nifedipine hyperplasia is less firm than the other two, and contains a higher proportion of ground substance. Continue reading →
The periodontium or the commonly known as the tooth supporting tissues consists of the gums, alveolar or jaw bone, the periodontal ligament and the cementum of tooth. Numerous systemic conditions can have effects on the periodontal tissues such as:
Physiological changes (mainly sex hormone effects)
Our mouth is constantly bathed in saliva and is exposed to the passage of food, the oral flora and many other stimuli considering the variety of objects that people put in their mouths such as cigarettes, pipes, hair-grips and so on. Nevertheless, our mouth has a remarkable ability to resist and adapt according to these stimulations. Our teeth are also exposed to the same factors and they can be covered wholly or in part by food debris, soft and hard deposits.
Dental Plaque, the main cause of Dental Caries
Dental Plaque is a soft but adherent deposit of bacteria and their products, which forms on all tooth surfaces and other objects in the mouth, for example; fillings or dentures. This Plaque formation is a natural, physiological process and is an example of a biofilm, which means it is not a haphazard collection of bacteria but a complex association of many different bacterial species living together in a single environment. For instance, a newborn baby’s mouth is sterile but within a few hours, microorganisms appear; mainly Streptococcus salivarius. By the time the baby had his/ her first tooth out, a complex flora is established.
Basically, Dental Plaque is scarcely visible in thin layers and it can be revealed only by the use of a Plaque-Disclosing Agent. In thick layers, it can be seen as yellowish or grey deposits which cannot be removed with mouthwashes or by irrigation but can be brushed off. It is usual to find it on areas which are difficult to reach by tooth brushing, for example; in between teeth or in severely crowded teeth. When Dental Plaque calcified or mineralized, it will become Dental Calculus or commonly known as Tartar. It is a ‘stony crust’ that forms on teeth and has long been associated with Gums Disease. Having said that; Dental Plaque is the main cause of dental caries.
Dental plaque (in red) visible through plaque disclosing agent
Are you refraining yourself from ice cream, cold drinks, cold air in the mornings when you breathe through your mouth causing a jolt to your teeth and forcing you to stay indoors? Even biting on a candy is causingpressure to your tooth? The answer is simple, you are suffering from sensitive teeth. Wondering how did all this happen? It could be due to various reasons from decay to gum disease. Continue reading →
Smoking cessation is an essential component for the successful treatment of periodontal disease as there is little rationale for treating periodontitiswithout eliminating one of the major causes of the disease. Thus, there is also the question of whether periodontal surgical treatment is indicated without a commitment by the patient to quit smoking. As with other smoking diseases, cessation is only the first step of a long healing process where the smoker often does not approach the lower risk of the nonsmoker for 10 to 20 years.
Smoking is a major hazard to health and promotes many diseases. In addition to nicotine (one of the most heavily used addictive drugs), cigarette smoke is composed of dozen gases (mainly carbon monoxide) and tar as well as almost 4000 other compounds which causes cancer are present. The ingredients of tobacco products affect not only our body directly, but also the people around us indirectly. Many of our organs succumb to the side effects of smoking, including our gums. Continue reading →
In many cases, plaque is difficult for an individual to identify. Plaque can be removed at planned intervals by the dental hygienist or a dentist as part of an oral prophylaxis. However, because daily dental plaque removal is more effective, it is the individual – not the hygienist or the dentist – who is vital for preserving lifelong intact teeth. Therefore it is essential to know the sites in the mouth where tooth plaque tends to accumulate. Continue reading →
Gingivitis comes from the word “gingiva” which means gums and “-itis” which means inflammation, hence gingivitis means inflammation of the gums. Poor tooth brushing technique or the lack of it leads to accumulation of plaque around the teeth, and eventually leads to gum diseases such as gingivitis. You should suspect gingivitis when you have other symptoms such as :
i) altered appearance of your gums (deep red in colour, soft and swollen appearance, loss of a scalloped and knife-edge shape)
Dentifrices and mouthrinses are the major products for routinely administering effective cosmetic and therapeutic agents in the mouth. These products are the most widely used by consumers, generating the largest sales of all dental products. Besides attempting to prevent tooth decay, it is also becoming increasingly common for manufacturers to add therapeutic or preventive agents to reduce gum disease (gingivitis) and tartar (calculus) formation. A few toothpastes also contain desensitizing agents. Continue reading →