Category Archives: Oral medicine

Antibiotic induced collitis

What is Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)?

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium that is related to the bacterium that cause tetanus and botulism. The C. difficile bacterium has two forms, an active, infectious form that cannot survive in the environment for prolonged periods, and a nonactive, “noninfectious” form, called a spore, that can survive in the environment for prolonged periods. Although spores cannot cause infection directly, when they are ingested they transform into the active, infectious form. Continue reading

Gardner Syndrome

Gardner syndrome which was first described in 1953 consists of adenomatous polyps of the gastrointestinal tract, desmoid tumours, osteomas, epidermoid cysts, lipomas, dental abnormalities and periampullary carcinomas.The incidence of the syndrome is 1:14,025 with an equal sex distribution. It is determined by the autosomal dominant familial polyposis coli gene (APC) on chromosome 5. Continue reading

Ehler-Danlos syndrome Part 1

Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS) (also known as Cutis hyperelastica) is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders, caused by a defect in the synthesis of collagen (Type I or III). The collagen, often referred to as “glue”, in connective tissue helps tissues to resist deformation. Collagen plays a very significant role in the skin, joints, muscles, ligaments, blood vessels and visceral organs; abnormal collagen leads to increased elasticity within these structures. Depending on the individual, the severity of the mutation can vary from mild to life-threatening. There is no cure, and treatment is supportive, including close monitoring of the digestive, excretory and particularly the cardiovascular systems. Physical therapy, bracing, and corrective surgery may help with the frequent injuries and pain that tend to develop in certain types of EDS, although extra caution is advised and special practices should be observed to prevent permanant damage. Continue reading

Granulomatous cheilitis

Granulomatous cheilitis refers to an uncommon condition in which there is lumpy swelling of the lips. It is also known as cheilitis granulomatosa. There are many different causes, such as allergy, Crohn disease, sarcoidosis and orofacial granulomatosis. Rare causes are infections, cancers and genetic disorders. Continue reading

Russell-Silver Syndrome

Russell-Silver syndrome is a disorder present at birth involving poor growth. One side of the body also will appear to be larger than the other. Continue reading

Patau syndrome

Patau syndrome, also known as trisomy 13 and trisomy D, is a chromosomal abnormality, a syndrome in which a patient has an additional chromosome 13 due to a nondisjunction of chromosomes during meiosis. Some are caused by Robertsonian translocations, while others are caused by mosaic Patau syndrome. The extra chromosome 13 disrupts the normal course of development, causing heart and kidney defects, amongst other features characteristic of Patau syndrome. Like all nondisjunction conditions (such as Down syndrome and Edwards syndrome), the risk of this syndrome in the offspring increases with maternal age at pregnancy, with about 31 years being the average. Patau syndrome affects somewhere between 1 in 10,000 and 1 in 21,700 live births. Continue reading

Peutz- Jegher syndrome

Peutz–Jeghers syndrome, also known as hereditary intestinal polyposis syndrome, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by the development of benign hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and hyperpigmented macules on the lips and oral mucosa. Peutz–Jeghers syndrome has an incidence of approximately 1 in 25,000 to 300,000 births. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is named after two doctors who first studied and described it in 1921. It is an association of three very specific conditions in any one person. Continue reading

Ramsay hunt syndrome

Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a painful rash around the ear that occurs when the varicella zoster virus infects a nerve in the head. This syndrome is also known as geniculate neuralgia or nervus intermedius neuralgia. Ramsay Hunt syndrome can also occur in the absence of a skin rash, condition known as zoster sine herpete. Continue reading

Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma (from Greek myelo-, bone marrow), also known as plasma cell myeloma or Kahler’s disease (after Otto Kahler), is cancer of the plasma cells in bone marrow. Continue reading

Kaposi’s sarcoma Part 2

Mouth

Is involved in about 30%, and is the initial site in 15% of AIDS-related KS. In the mouth, the hard palate is most frequently affected, followed by the gums. Lesions in the mouth may be easily damaged by chewing and bleed or suffer secondary infection, and even interfere with eating or speaking. Continue reading