Author Archives: oileng

How to Handle Traumatic Injuries to Your Child’s Teeth Part 2

Continued from Part 1

First aid advice for parent or caregivers

avulsed tooth ©

Always check the child’s clothing for avulsed teeth that are thought to be lost. It is important that parents, caregivers and teachers have assess to appropriate advice on the management of avulsed teeth. Timing is essential and this information can be given over the telephone. Continue reading

How to Handle Traumatic Injuries to Your Child’s Teeth Part 1


The management of tooth fracture in children is distressing for both child and parent and often difficult for the dentist. However, trauma is one of the most common presentations of young children to a pediatric dentist. Trauma not only compromises a previously healthy dentition but may also leave a deficit that affects the self-esteem and quality of the life and commits the person to life-long dental maintenance. Continue reading

Oral Adverse Effects of Drugs Part 2

Continued from Part 1


Tobacco and alcohol use are important risk factors for leukoplakia and oral cancer.

Drug-related pemphigoid and other bullous disorders

Drug-induced pemphigoid may be due to drugs acting as haptens or drug-induced immunological dysfunction.

Drugs most commonly implicated

Oral Adverse Effects of Drugs Part 1

Oral side effects caused by drugs are relatively uncommon but may be important. Some drugs almost invariably cause side effects in the mouth, for example dry mouth from many drugs, and oral ulcerswith some of the cytotoxic agents, while other drugs rarely cause oral complications. Some habits, such as the use of oral snuff (smokeless tobacco), can cause gum recession and leukoplakia (a precancerous white lesion) and possibly predispose to oral cancer whereas oral use of cocaine can cause gum ulceration or peeling of mouth tissues. Drugs that occasionally cause complications in the mouth are discussed below. Continue reading

Oral Lesions in HIV Disease

Oral features of HIV / AIDS reflect the T-cell immune defect and are, thus, mainly the consequence of fungal or viral infections. The most common are candidiasis (candidosis) and hairy leukoplakia. Necrotizing gingivitis, accelerated periodontitis, Kaposi sarcoma, lymphomas, salivary gland disease, ulcers of various infective causes and other lesions may be seen.

Oral lesions may indicate HIV infection that is previously undiagnosed, be used in staging and therapy decisions, or cause the individual pain or esthetic problems. Continue reading

What to Know About HIV Infection Part 2

Continued from Part 1


HIV disease

HIV disease (symptomatic HIV infection) appears as the CD4 count progressively declines over a long incubation period, which may extend over 5 to 15 years or more. Then the person may develop:

  • Infections: the most important infections are pneumonia, candidiasis, herpesviruses and parasites. Opportunistic infections are common and resistant to treatment. Tuberculosis is increasing in HIV-infected persons in whom it may invoke mycobacteria resistant to a range of anti-tubercular drugs. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a lung infection seen in up to 80% of infected persons and is the immediate cause of death in up to 20% of individuals dying with AIDS.
  • Tumors: the main tumors appear to be virally related and include Kaposi sarcoma associated HHV-8, lymphomas associated with EBV, and cervical and anal cancers associated with HPV.
  • Anorexia, diarrhea, wasting, premature aging and autoimmune phenomena particularly thrombocytopenic purpura.

  • Sometimes neuropsychiatric disease: there may be dementia complex, with personality changes, ataxia and convulsions, and other cerebral syndromes. Continue reading

What to Know About HIV Infection Part 1


Infection with the RNA retroviruses known as human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) produces HIV infection which eventually damages T-lymphocytes that protects our immune system, thus causing immunodeficiency. This predisposes to fungi, viruses, mycobacteria and/or parasites, and the appearance of clinical diseases, at which time the condition is termed ‘HIV disease’. This then progresses over time to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Continue reading

Mouth Pigmentation Part 2

Continued from Part 1

Melanin pigmentation – acquired causes

Addison's disease ©

Acquired melanosis of the oral mucosa may be a manifestation of systemic disease, cancer or of a simple local disorder. It is an important sign indicating the need for careful investigations of the individual. Continue reading

Mouth Pigmentation Part 1


Pigmentation in mouth, which ranges from brown to black, may be due to superficial (extrinsic) or deep (intrinsic) causes. They may result from the localization of exogenous substances on or within the mucosa, or may be due to deposition in the tissues of endogenous pigments (for example substances produced by the body), of which melanin is the most common. Continue reading

Why Are My Teeth Discolored? Part 2

Continued from Part 1


Incorporation of pigments into the dental hard tissues during their formation

This occurs in congenital disorders associated with hyperbilirubinemia, congenital porphyria and tetracycline pigmentation. Continue reading