Oral features of HIV / AIDS reflect the T-cell immune defect and are, thus, mainly the consequence of fungal or viral infections. The most common are candidiasis (candidosis) and hairy leukoplakia. Necrotizing gingivitis, accelerated periodontitis, Kaposi sarcoma, lymphomas, salivary gland disease, ulcers of various infective causes and other lesions may be seen.
Oral lesions may indicate HIV infection that is previously undiagnosed, be used in staging and therapy decisions, or cause the individual pain or esthetic problems. Continue reading →
HIV disease (symptomatic HIV infection) appears as the CD4 count progressively declines over a long incubation period, which may extend over 5 to 15 years or more. Then the person may develop:
Infections: the most important infections are pneumonia, candidiasis, herpesviruses and parasites. Opportunistic infections are common and resistant to treatment. Tuberculosis is increasing in HIV-infected persons in whom it may invoke mycobacteria resistant to a range of anti-tubercular drugs. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a lung infection seen in up to 80% of infected persons and is the immediate cause of death in up to 20% of individuals dying with AIDS.
Tumors: the main tumors appear to be virally related and include Kaposi sarcoma associated HHV-8, lymphomas associated with EBV, and cervical and anal cancers associated with HPV.
Infection with the RNA retroviruses known as human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) produces HIVinfection which eventually damages T-lymphocytes that protects our immune system, thus causing immunodeficiency. This predisposes to fungi, viruses, mycobacteria and/or parasites, and the appearance of clinical diseases, at which time the condition is termed ‘HIV disease’. This then progresses over time to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Continue reading →