What to Know About HIV Infection Part 2

Continued from Part 1

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HIV disease

HIV disease (symptomatic HIV infection) appears as the CD4 count progressively declines over a long incubation period, which may extend over 5 to 15 years or more. Then the person may develop:

  • Infections: the most important infections are pneumonia, candidiasis, herpesviruses and parasites. Opportunistic infections are common and resistant to treatment. Tuberculosis is increasing in HIV-infected persons in whom it may invoke mycobacteria resistant to a range of anti-tubercular drugs. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a lung infection seen in up to 80% of infected persons and is the immediate cause of death in up to 20% of individuals dying with AIDS.
  • Tumors: the main tumors appear to be virally related and include Kaposi sarcoma associated HHV-8, lymphomas associated with EBV, and cervical and anal cancers associated with HPV.
  • Anorexia, diarrhea, wasting, premature aging and autoimmune phenomena particularly thrombocytopenic purpura.

  • Sometimes neuropsychiatric disease: there may be dementia complex, with personality changes, ataxia and convulsions, and other cerebral syndromes. Continue reading

What to Know About HIV Infection Part 1

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Infection with the RNA retroviruses known as human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) produces HIV infection which eventually damages T-lymphocytes that protects our immune system, thus causing immunodeficiency. This predisposes to fungi, viruses, mycobacteria and/or parasites, and the appearance of clinical diseases, at which time the condition is termed ‘HIV disease’. This then progresses over time to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Continue reading

Heat mouldable impression tray Part 2

Mandibular stock trays will sit on top of large mandibular tori, or at best scrape the lingual tissue covering the tori during the impression, again resulting in complications during the impressioning phase for any application. In the past, solutions included cutting down the lingual flanges to make them end superior to the mandibular torus, or to take a preliminary impression which was not seated fully and then from the model fabricated, make a custom tray and re-impress. Clinicians have also attempted to use maxillary trays to impress lower arches, however it is difficult if not impossible to retract the tongue to accomplish this procedure. Yung-tsung has suggested taking a maxillary tray, cutting out the palatal portion and adding utility wax to create a tray that will capture lingual tori. Until now, there has not been an easy solution for satisfactorily modifying a stock tray to impress a maxillary tuberosity, unless one removes the centre of a plastic tray, and most often it required a first impression doing the best one could clinically, and then following with a final impression utilizing a custom tray fabricated from the initial model. Continue reading

Mouth Pigmentation Part 2

Continued from Part 1

Melanin pigmentation – acquired causes

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Acquired melanosis of the oral mucosa may be a manifestation of systemic disease, cancer or of a simple local disorder. It is an important sign indicating the need for careful investigations of the individual. Continue reading

Mouth Pigmentation Part 1

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Pigmentation in mouth, which ranges from brown to black, may be due to superficial (extrinsic) or deep (intrinsic) causes. They may result from the localization of exogenous substances on or within the mucosa, or may be due to deposition in the tissues of endogenous pigments (for example substances produced by the body), of which melanin is the most common. Continue reading

Heat moldable impression tray Part 1

Intra-oral bony growths of all types, present a clinical challenge for the dental team attempting to capture accurate detail for final impressions of crown and bridge, removable prosthetics, oral appliances, accurate opposing models, study models, and whitening trays. Stock impression trays often can’t be seated to depth, because they get hung up on these bony anatomical variants, or the bony protuberances can cause pain during the impressioning procedure, as there is often only a thin membrane of covering tissue which is easily irritated. Lingual tori may also limit the space for the tongue and can result in speech impediment. Even though these bony areas can create a clinical challenge with impressioning, these areas are prime sites for harvesting autogenous bone for bone grafting of dental implants and can be used for multiple reconstructive procedures such as nasal reconstruction. Continue reading

Gardner Syndrome

Gardner syndrome which was first described in 1953 consists of adenomatous polyps of the gastrointestinal tract, desmoid tumours, osteomas, epidermoid cysts, lipomas, dental abnormalities and periampullary carcinomas.The incidence of the syndrome is 1:14,025 with an equal sex distribution. It is determined by the autosomal dominant familial polyposis coli gene (APC) on chromosome 5. Continue reading

Precision Attachments

In dentistry, precision attachments are the functional mechanical parts of the removable partial denture made of plastic, metal or a combination of both. Precision attachment partial dentures can be used to restore arches where there are not enough teeth for fixed bridgework. They consist of two parts referred as the ‘male’ part that is fixed to a crown inside the patient’s mouth and a ‘female’ part which holds the partial denture. The male is machined by the manufacturer to fit the female with such precision that any male out of the box will fit any female with an exact degree of accuracy. All of the precision attachments in a partial denture are positioned so that they are exactly parallel to each other. The patient can insert and remove the partial dentures and the aim of the precision attachment is to give the patient maximum comfort and ease while wearing, inserting or removing. Continue reading

Types of Mandibular Major Connectors Part 2




1. Situations where the major connector must contact the natural teeth to provide bracing and indirect retention and there are open cervical embrasures which contraindicate the use of a lingual plate. There must be adequate space for the lingual bar portion of the major connector. Continue reading

Types of Mandibular Major Connectors Part 1

The MAJOR CONNECTOR is that part of a remvable partial denture (RPD) that joins the component parts on one side of the arch to those on the opposite side. It is the unit of the RPD to which all other parts are directly or indirectly attached. Continue reading