Lasers used in dentistry are engineered and designed to perform special functions without changing or damaging the surrounding tissues or materials.
The functioning of a laser goes back to Albert Einstein’s quantum theory of radiation and includes other theories that help explain the local tissue damage. The first laser was demonstrated in 1960. It was ruby laser, 694nm wavelength. Interest in the medical implications of laser light was high and already in 1967 , some of the first reports appeared on the effects of very low doses of ruby light on biological tissues. In animal studies, it was observed that experimental wounds healed better if irradiated and that even the shaved fur of the experimental animals reappeared faster in the irradiated areas. There appeared to be a biological window for the dose. If too low, there was no effect, if too high there was a suprresive effect. Not much later, the Helium-Neon laser was introduced in research and the results were similar. Later on, diode lasers were introduced and they provide the same results, although some wavelengths appeared to be better for certain indications. In particular, the introduction of infrared lasers improved the optical penetration of the ligh, reaching deeper lying tissues. The first commercially available lasers in the early 80’s were extremely low powered, below 1mW was used, in spite of the fact that the first scientific reports used 25 mW. This partly explains the initial contoversy about therapeutic dosage to be used. With the rapid developement of laser diodes, the powers of therapeutic lasers have changed dramastically and diode lasers today are typically in the range of 50-500 mW. Increased power has not only shortened the treatment time but also improved the therapeutic results.
Oral medicine is defined as that area of special competence concerned with the health of and with diseases involving the oral para oral structures, it includes, principles of medicine that relates to the mouth, as well as research in biological, pathological and clinical spheres, diagnosis and medical management of diseases specific to the orofacial tissues and of oral manifestations of systemic diseases and management of behavioral disorders and the oral and dental treatment of medically compromised patients.
Blunt point needles dissect friable tissue rather than cut it. The points are rounded and blunt, ideal for suturing the liver and kidneys. Additionally, blunt needles are being developed for more conventional uses in an effort to reduce needlestick injuries. Continue reading →
Suture selection is dependent on the anatomic site, surgeon’s preference, and the required suture characteristics. No standardized sizing system or nomenclature is available for needles or needle holders; the main consideration in needle selection is to minimize trauma. The length, diameter, and curvature of the needle influence the surgeon’s ability to place a suture. Continue reading →
Remember the days when you would come home from school for the holidays? School was intense, and you were tired and ready for solace. It was during that time that there was truly no place like home. Between naps and studying for board exams, you were met with tantalizing aromas of culinary delights from your motherâ€™s attempt to spoil you as much as possible. Perhaps it was the apple pie baking in the oven or the Christmas sugar cookies. Either way, the smells went straight to the pit of your stomach while touching an emotional part of your brain as well. The aromatic ensemble made studying for boards an arduous task, but the fragrance conjured up warm fuzzies inside you. Continue reading →
Canker sores are also known as aphthous ulcer. Patients will normally face symptoms such as soreness, burning, or prickling sensation 1 to 2 days before the appearance of the ulcers.
Normal surrounding of your mouth will appear normal or there will be some red macules at the future sites of the ulcers. There are three recognisable type of aphthousÂ ulcers , minor aphthous ulcers, major aphthous ulcers, andÂ herpetiform ulcers. Continue reading →
Brighter teeth now are getting center stage in cosmetic dentistry. Most frequent reason patients seek for this dental care is discolored anterior teeth. Patients with normal teeth shades also do sometimes request for whitening treatments. Treatment options of discolored teeth include: