Monthly Archives: March 2012

Effect of Systemic Factors on the Periodontium Part 1


The periodontium or the commonly known as the tooth supporting tissues consists of the gums, alveolar or jaw bone, the periodontal ligament and the cementum of tooth. Numerous systemic conditions can have effects on the periodontal tissues such as:

  • Physiological changes (mainly sex hormone effects)
  • Systemic disease – endocrines, genetic conditions, granulomatous conditions, blood disorders, immunological conditions, dermatoses
  • Infections
  • Drug reactions
  • Dietary and nutritional factors

This article will discuss some of the systemic factors stated above that are more commonly seen. Continue reading

Cap splint

Pediatric mandibular fractures are not commonly encountered. The elasticity of bones in a child prevents loss of continuity of bone and rather results in a bending of a cortex termed as a greenstick fracture. Occlusion is rarely a problem as there is no disruption or mild changes are remodeled during the development of permanent dentition. In case of a severely displaced fracture the treatment option can vary from intermaxillary fixation, cap splints to plating with mini plates or resorbable plates. Continue reading

An Approach to Oral Ulcers


Oral ulceration is probably the commonest oral mucosal disease seen and it may also be the most serious. It is important therefore not to underestimate that ulcer in your mouth, especially if it persists for a long time. Continue reading

Orthognathic Surgery: What Is It?


Sometimes surgical procedures might be needed during orthodontic treatment when malocclusion is severe and beyond the limits of treatment with fixed dental braces. This orthodontic surgery procedure is called orthognathic surgery. Continue reading

Dental pins

When the teeth are decayed and it has to be restored the dentist goes for the filling but sometimes the decay is extensive and a large part of the tooth is lost. In such cases pins and posts are used as the simple filling material can not give the adequate strength to sustain the masticatory forces and fractures. The pins and posts can be used separately or together as decided by the dentist. Continue reading

Getting Adult Braces


There has been an increase in adults seeking orthodontic treatment over the recent years and it can be due to various reasons that include:

  • Improved dental awareness with the advent of preventive dentistry and teeth are retained longer in the mouth.
  • The issue of esthetic concern has reduced due to the introduction of ceramic and lingual brackets.
  • Orthodontics or the wearing of teeth braces is now socially acceptable and can be a sign of affluence.
  • Recommended by general dentists for restorative and periodontal care.
  • Insurance and claims for dental treatment in some countries. Continue reading

Caries diagnosis Part 3

Although the evidence shows that many diagnostic methods are less than desirably accurate, current diagnostic interpretations still must be used until new, more sensitive, techniques are available and validated. The evidence-based reports supported previous caries experience and pathologically low salivary flow rate as indicators of significant risk. Most studies from the systematic reviews involved children and excluded root caries, adults, and anterior teeth. Therefore, the clinician must extrapolate reportedly successful preventive and arresting/remineralization techniques from children to adults, root caries, and anterior teeth. In the absence of clear evidence on adequately sensitive diagnostic methods for detecting early noncavitated lesions and risk assessment indicators, clinicians need guidelines for treatment. Continue reading

Caries diagnosis Part 2

Numerous risk indicators, that is, characteristics or measurements that assist in the prediction of caries, whether or not they are involved in caries causation, have been suggested for children. Unfortunately, more of the supportive data come from cross-sectional correlations with accumulated caries experience than from prospective, protocol-based incidence studies. The prospective studies employed different combinations of potential predictors in a variety of populations, varied considerably in sample size and quality, and have not produced a broadly applicable index or set of criteria for risk assessment. More and higher-quality comprehensive, longitudinal, multifactor studies of implicated risk indicators are needed to obtain firm support for their associations with caries incidence, to clarify the strengths of these associations in differing populations, and to reveal the extent to which the risk indicators provide independent as opposed to redundant information. In addition, although the nature of the disease process suggests that many of the proposed indicators may well be appropriate throughout life, validation studies in adult populations are largely absent or incomplete. Continue reading

Caries diagnosis Part 1

1. What are the best methods for detecting early and advanced dental caries (validity and feasibility of traditional methods; validity and feasibility of emerging methods)?

Observations and studies during the past two decades have indicated that diagnostic and treatment paradigms may differ significantly for large, cavitated lesions versus early, small lesions and demineralized areas on tooth surfaces. The essential anatomic-pathophysiologic problem is that the carious lesion occurs within a small, highly mineralized structure following penetration through the structure’s surface in a manner which may be difficult to detect using current methods. Additionally, carious lesions occur in a variety of anatomic locations, often adjacent to existing restorations, and have unique aspects of configuration and rate of spread. These differences make it unlikely that any one diagnostic modality will have adequate sensitivity and specificity of detection for all sites. The application of multiple diagnostic tests to the individual patient increases the overall efficacy of caries diagnosis. Existing diagnostic modalities require stronger validation, and new modalities with appropriate sensitivities and specificities for different caries sites, caries severities, and degrees of caries activity are needed. Continue reading

Oral care for the blind

Blind patients have the same dental needs as those with sight. However, special precautions should be taken to ensure the comfort and safety of the patient and staff. More verbal explanations are required when assisting a blind dental patient. These patients use other senses, such as hearing and touch, to be able to navigate their way through the world and knowing what is going on. Continue reading